The Livable Winter Cities Association was formed in 1982 by a group of people from across North America and once had chapters in Minneapolis, Ottawa, and Anchorage. Members included cities, planners, architects, engineers, and other interested persons from around the world. From 1982-2005, the Association organized conferences, published books and the quarterly magazine "Winter Cities". As a non-profit managed by a dedicated but small group of volunteers, the Livable Winter Cities Association, in the end, struggled to maintain its mission. The Association mission is revived now through the efforts of the Winter Cites Institute, whose members include municipalities, community leaders and design professionals from around the world. In their 1986 publication, Livable Winter Cities, The American Institute of Architects and the Royal Architecture Institute of Canada defined winter cities as “places where the average January temperature is 32° F (0° C) or colder, and that are generally located above 45° latitude. " Definitions of a what a winter city is have since changed to focus more on the concept of winter city thinking than relying on specific temperatures and geographies of a city.